Valgus force vs varus force

Differences Between Valgus and Varus Knee Alignment

A varus force is a force the is directed laterally at the knee (could be a push from the medial side or a pull from the lateral side). It is just the vector in which the force is going. The deformity is the resultant alignment of the limb. So if there is a lax/torn LCL, a varus force will enhance the varus of the knee Varus vs valgus force Differences Between Valgus and Varus Knee Alignment . D deficiency). 2  Valgus vs Varus Knee Alignment Varus and valgus position are related to development of knee osteoarthritis, however their function in circumstance illness is less certain. Radiographic calculates of accident knee osteoarthritis might be getting early development instead of disease creatio Varus Stress Test. An assessment for one-plane lateral instability (i.e. the tibia moves away from the femur an excessive amount on the lateral aspect of the leg). [1] The therapist applies a varus stress at the knee while the ankle is stabilized. The test is first done with the knee in full extension and then with the knee in 20-30 degrees of. The MCL can accept up to 4000N of force without tearing. The main function of the lateral collateral ligament, the LCL, is to resist varus displacement. (A word on terminology: a valgus deformity is one in which the distal part is angled away from the midline; varus is in one in which the distal part angles towards the midline

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Valgus vs varus Radiology Reference Article

  1. varus (Pathway 4), sesamoid disorders (Pathway 5), Ankle equinus is a detrimental force leading to prona- lux valgus is a progressive disorder and is often evaluated in the second or third stage, surgical consideration can be undertaken early in the course of treatment
  2. The terms of valgus and varus refer to alignment of bony segments. Some mistakenly state they are defined by angulations at the knee. However valgus and varus angulations can occur in numerous locations. Let's take a look at how they are defined and where they occur most commonly. Increased compressive force may be placed on the medial.
  3. er simultaneously applies an abducting force at the the foot, and a valgus force through the knee joint. This test is typically performed at both 30 and 0 degrees of knee flexion
  4. ology. Classic valgus is usually stated as knee abduction. Imagine the knee abducting the same way a hip would - Not really a.

The valgus test involves placing the leg into extension, with one hand placed as a pivot on the knee. With the other hand placed upon the foot applying an abducting force, an attempt is then made to force the leg at the knee into valgus. The varus test involves applying forces to the knee in the opposite direction Hip angular impulse in the valgus group was significantly smaller than that in the varus group (0.019 ± 0.033 vs. 0.067 ± 0.029 Nms/kgm, p<0.01), whereas knee angular impulse was significantly greater (0.093 ± 0.032 vs. 0.045 ± 0.040 Nms/kgm, p<0.01). There was no difference in ankle angular impulse between the groups ENROLL IN OUR COURSE: http://bit.ly/PTMSKGET OUR ASSESSMENT BOOK ︎ ︎ http://bit.ly/GETPT ︎ ︎OUR APPS: iPhone/iPad: https://apple.co/35vt8Vx Android: h.. Excessive varus or valgus malalignment may be an independent risk factor for the development of knee arthritis. The patella, or kneecap, functions as a fulcrum to increase the force of the quadriceps muscles. The patella sits in the trochlea, a groove between the two rounded ends of the femur. The tendon of the quadriceps muscles encases the. The terms valgus and varus are both related to each other, but they are opposite as well. For example in orthopedics, the varus refers to the inward bending of the distal segment of the bone or joint, whereas the valgus alignment is the outward bending of the knee. The deformities that can form in both the valgus and varus can cause serious.

A hallux varus in simple terms is a big toe that is a deformity of the foot, where the tip of the big toe is pointing inward, inside of foot. This is the opposite of a hallux valgus (bunion), where the 1st metatarsal phalangeal joint is forced inward, and the resulting big toe points outward (outside of foot) Resistance to this force valgus/varus motion was measured simultaneously with torque about the knee in the sagittal plane. Muscle activity was monitored by electromyography (EMG). Direct comparison of moment-rotation characteristics allowed changes in stability to be quantified as a function of extension and flexion torque. Extension torques. RESULTS: Forty fractures were a result of varus force as evidenced by transverse fracture of the fibula and 63 were due to valgus force with a comminuted fibula. For the transverse fibula group, 14.3% mechanical complications were noted for medially placed plate vs 80% for lateral plating ( P = .006) Functional foot orthoses were constructed for each subject and the relaxed calcaneal stance position was measured while standing on five separate frontal plane orthosis wedging conditions, 10 degrees valgus, 5 degrees valgus, no wedging, 5 degrees varus, and 10 degrees varus, to assess changes in calcaneal position Technique [edit | edit source]. This test can be performed with the patient supine, sitting, or in the standing position. The therapist places the patients elbow in approximately 20 degrees of flexion while palpating the medial joint line and stabilizing the distal humerus with one hand and applying a valgus stress to the elbow with the other hand

Varus/Valgus wedges are intended to force an angular lateral or medial accommodation, to shift weight or change angulation of the lower limbs. This is often part of treatment for various foot ankle, knee, or lower back problems. 3° V/V Wedge Three degrees of comfortable varus/valgus wedgin Valgus group shows an initial valgus impulse that progresses to a varus impulse at the 6-month mark that continues to progress. In the braking phase for the varus group, knee moment was significantly reduced to 85% of preoperative levels at 6 months ( P = .037) but subsequently increased to 94% of preoperative levels at 1 year ( P = .539 vs. There were no differences in mechanical complications for medial vs lateral plating in tibial pilon fracture based on varus or valgus deforming forces. As much as we should consider the fracture patterns and deforming forces when deciding on plating location, other factors such as careful soft tissu

【Valgus vs Varus】- Knee Alignment Differenc

You are NOT bringing the ground up to the varus unless the varus post is under the met HEADS, the WB area. Rather it could be thought to increase forefoot inversion moment from force in the arch and, perhaps, decrease forefoot inversion moment from force under the medial forefoot There are multiple force vectors acting at the time of injury, primarily comprising of varus or valgus as well as rotational forces resulting in a diverse group of fractures although the two most common plate locations used to resist these forces are medial and anterolateral [1,2,3,4,5,6]. Even though the location of plating has been debated.

Medial, we are not as susceptible to varus forces as we are to valgus forces and we already have a natural valgus Valgus forces push you into more valgus. T/F The annular ligament contains hyaline cartilage. F, its made of fibrocartilage for shock absorption and less elasticity A valgus deformity is a condition in which the bone segment distal to a joint is angled outward, that is, angled laterally, away from the body's midline. The opposite deformation, where the twist or angulation is directed medially, toward the center of the body, is called varus.Common causes of valgus knee (genu valgum or knock-knee) in adults include arthritis of the knee and traumatic.

Valgus stress radiographs were obtained with the patient supine with the knee 20° flexed and a firm manual valgus force was applied through the knee. On valgus stress radiographs, the lateral. In varus knee posturing, the major contracted and deforming force is the superficial MCL. A periosteal elevator commonly is used to strip the superficial MCL from the tibia. This release requires ligament stripping distal to the pes anserine insertion, usually raising a periosteal sleeve to the diaphyseal region of the proximal tibia View Biomechanics Chapter 8.docx from PET 3312 at University of South Florida. • Difference between valgus vs varus forces - • Valgus: Force on the lateral side Varus: Force on the media varus force is applied while the knee is flexing and extending Pass three- The examiner internally rotates the tibia, while the knee is being flexed and extended, and a varus force is applied. This procedure is repeated again with external rotation of the tibia and a valgus force Positive Test Result : A palpable click along the joint line, a. Impaired varus-valgus proprioception and neuromuscular stabilization in medial knee osteoarthritis. (JDD) with a customized motor and a 6-axis force sensor. Analysis of covariance with BMI as a covariate was used to test the differences in varus-valgus neuromechanical parameters between these two groups. The KOA group had impaired varus.

met inclusion criteria with appropriate follow-up. 48 fractures resulted from a varus force (transverse fracture of the fibula) and 72 were due to valgus forces (comminuted fibula). In the transverse fibular fracture group (n = 48), 14.3% that were correctly plated mediall Importantly the neck angle affects forces across the hip because it changes the tension of the abductor mechanism. A valgus hip results in improved mechanical advantage to the abductor while a varus hip generates greater forces across the hip center. Most femoral components of a total hip replacement rely on bony ingrowth for long term fixation Figure 1: Elbow valgus torque vs pitch velocity and shoulder distraction force vs pitch velocity When separated by level, college and high school pitches both exhibited a positive linear relationship between pitch velocity and shoulder distraction force (College: r 2 = 0.09, p<0.001 MCL injury. Patients commonly have had recent excessive valgus force applied to a partially flexed knee (eg, a clipping injury in football). A common triad of injury (particularly in athletes) when a valgus force is applied to the knee involves injury to the MCL, the medial meniscus, and the anterior cruciate ligament The unloading braces are specifically designed to apply a corrective torque (moment of force) to a varus or valgus deformity associated with unicompartmental knee OA. They are intended to dynamically off-load the damaged compartment via a three-point bending mechanism. 29 As depicted in Figure 4,.

zero force, and on this basis, varus and valgus ranges were separated from the total lever arm angle data. Stiffness was defined as the change in joint torque divided by the change in joint angle (Nm/°). End-range varus and valgus stiffness was calculated over the last 25% of the range moving in a varus and valgus direction, respectively. In a knee with varus alignment, this line passes medial to the knee, and a moment arm is created that increases forces across the medial tibiofemoral compartment (9). In a knee with valgus alignment, the load-bearing axis line passes lateral to the knee, and the moment arm created increases forces across the lateral tibiofemoral compartment shaved down to create a 2, 4 or 6mm varus wedge effect within the heel cup. This causes the center of force the orthotic is applying to the heel to shift medially, increases supinatory torque, and stabilizes or inverts the rearfoot on the device. Intrinsic Corrections and Extrinsic Posting - Define

Valgus deformity - WikipediaElbow deformities in achondroplasia

Varus/Valgus Stress Student Doctor Network Communitie

  1. Valgus using Inertial Sensor System MyoMotion Fz Force along the Z axis HfD Hop for Distance IC Initial Contact IMU Inertial Measurement Unit KV knee valgus LAS Leg Axis Score LT left Max maximum knee flexion MM MyoMotion MR3 MyoResearch 3.
  2. Valgus Stress Test. - See: - Medial Collateral Ligament: - Varus Stress Test: - Primary vs Secondary Restraints: - seationing of MCL results in marked valgus instability; - isolated sectioning of ACL, PCL, LCL, or posterolateral structures does not cause large increases in valgus angulation
  3. A varus deformity is an excessive inward angulation (medial angulation, that is, towards the body's midline) of the distal segment of a bone or joint. The opposite of varus is called valgus.The terms varus and valgus always refer to the direction that the distal segment of the joint points

Varus vs valgus force valgus vs varu

  1. Varus stress testing. Internally rotate the foot and the tibia and, at the same time, apply an abduction (valgus) force at the knee. Flex the knee from 0° to 30° whilst applying this force and still holding the foot and tibia in internal rotation
  2. The therapist then applies a valgus force to the elbow. If the patient experiences pain or excessive gapping compared to the contralateral side the test is considered positive. Diagnostic Accuracy: Unknown. Importance of Test: The MCL of the elbow is a common injury among overhead throwers. According to Neumann, the MCL of the elbow has 3 fiber.
  3. ation and plain full limb length radiographs
  4. imal correction due to depth of shoes. Minimal rearfoo
  5. The brace applies corrective force to the leg to maintain normal alignment and redistribute load away from the damaged side of the knee. Wearing an OA knee brace can reduce your knee pain, slow down the continued degeneration of your knee joint, and potentially allow you to stay more active. While many people with OA experience health benefits.

The most important criterion for this procedure was the patient's tolerance of the valgus forces resulting from the coronal plane adjustments, as illustrated in Figure 2. After the patients were recruited into this study, the individual adjustment of the valgus force was evaluated and modified as needed before the measurement session began While palpating the joint line, apply a valgus force to the knee, while simultaneously externally rotating and extending the knee completely. Place the tested leg back in maximal hip and knee flexion. While palpating the joint line, apply a varus force to the knee, while simultaneously internally rotating and extending the knee completely

Valgus and Varus Stress Test - Physical Therapy Have

  1. muscular pull of the EHL and adductor hallucis tendons on the proximal phalanx and a valgus stress during the toe-off phase of gait. Any valgus force on the proximal phalanx causes a resultant medially directed force on the metatarsal head. This contributes to a varus angulation of the first metatarsal shaft (metatarsus primus varus)
  2. g (54.2±33 ms vs 92.9±43 ms) (Table 3), earlier peak internal ankle dorsiflexion moment ti
  3. Jun 4, 2021 - 【Valgus vs Varus】- Knee Alignment Difference. Jun 4, 2021 - 【Valgus vs Varus】- Knee Alignment Difference. Jun 4, 2021 - 【Valgus vs Varus】- Knee Alignment Difference. Pinterest. Today. Explore. When autocomplete results are available use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. Touch device users, explore by.

Knee Ligaments - Ucsfcme.com Knee Injuries 6 Degrees of freedom of knee motion Flexion/Extension Varus/Valgus Rotation Internal/External Rotation Anterior/Posterior Translation Medial/Lateral valgus force applied to the flexed knee Injuries mostly at the medial femoral condyle Can be associated with tears of the PM. Several cadaveric studies demonstrate that the ACL experiences increased force during valgus loads.22 48 Quadriceps force coupled with a valgus load increases the ACL force up to 100% compared with valgus loads without a quadriceps force.22 Similarly, coupled valgus loading with anterior tibial force leads to higher ACL forces and strains than.

The documented incidence of hallux abducto valgus was as high as approximately 50% in one study of South Africans and as low as 2% in one study of a barefoot population ().Female patients have been found to have a much higher incidence of the deformity (2, 3, 4).Whether these studies indicate a true increased incidence of hallux abducto valgus in the female population or merely represent a. The effect of extraarticular varus and valgus deformity on total knee arthroplasty. The effect of varus tilt on contact stresses in total knee arthroplasty: a biomechanical study. Step-by-step measurements of soft tissue balancing during total knee arthroplasty for patients with varus knees. The Difficult Knee: Severe Varus and Valgus This varus force may increase the risk of physeal injury by generating additional shear force on the physis. Citation: Kim K-H, Kim H-S, Kang MS, Park S-S (2019) Varus shearing force is a main injury mechanism of pediatric trampoline-related injury in addition to compressive axial loading

in delayed group vs 0/15 in early group • Duckworth et al, JBJS Br 2011 - > 24 hr to surgery associated with failure - • Swiontkowski et al, JBJS Am1984, 12 hr cutoff - 20% AVN in < 8 & > 36 hr groups • Haidukewych, JBJS Am 2004 - < 50 years old, 24 hr cutoff - 20% AVN in both groups Displacement and reduction most importan A high interobserver reliability (ICC value of 0.90) was observed using manual maximum valgus force and no differences between outcomes (p > 0.53). The noninvasive valgus elbow tester demonstrates high interobserver and intraobserver reliability using manual maximum valgus force and can be used for further research and daily practice Varus/Valgus and Internal/External Torsional Knee Joint Stiffness Differs Between Sexes. American Journal of Sports Medicine. 2008; 36(7):1380-8. (Figure 1). For VR/VL, an external force was applied to the lateral and medial aspects of the distal tibia using a handheld force transducer (Model SM-50, Interface, Scottsdale, Arizona VARUS AND VALGUS FORCES The adductor hallucis exerts a valgus force on the joint, while the abductor exerts a varus force. Once the toe is rotated out of a neutral position, those varus and valgus forces become deforming forces. 10. PATHWAY FOR CLASSIFICATION Vanore et. al. published this pathway for diagnosing and treating hallux varus. It is. A Valgus Knee and the Kinetic Chain. A valgus knee doesn't just cause problems in the lateral compartment of the knee. It also significantly impacts the joints above and below the knee. For example, it causes internal rotation of the hip and places stretch forces on the outside hip structures like the ITB

Primary, Double, and Triple Varus Knee Syndromes

Valgus force vs varus force Keyword Found Websites . Keyword-suggest-tool.com DA: 28 PA: 36 MOZ Rank: 91. The role of varus and valgus alignment in knee ; Onlinelibrary.wiley.com DA: 23 PA: 27 MOZ Rank: 65; In a knee with varus alignment, this line passes medial to the knee, and a moment arm is created that increases forces across the medial tibiofemoral compartment ; In a knee with valgus. Constrained prostheses are used in unstable knees due to their ability to resist varus and valgus transformative forces across the knee. Constraint requires inherent rigidity, which can facilitate early implant failure. The purpose of this study was to describe the comparative indications for surgery and postoperative outcomes of varus valgus.

Collateral Ligament Injuries of the Knee OrthoPaedi

  1. A valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy corrects varus collapse and reorients a vertical fracture with a high Pauwel's angle experiencing high shear forces into a horizontal fracture experiencing more compressive forces. 1 Good outcomes have been reported in the literature with this procedure. 2-4. Preoperative Plannin
  2. talipes [tal´ĭ-pēz] a deformity in which the foot is twisted out of normal position; see also clubfoot and see illustration. It may have an abnormally high longitudinal arch (talipes cavus) or it may be in dorsiflexion (talipes calcaneus), in plantar flexion (talipes equinus), abducted and everted (talipes valgus or flatfoot), adducted and inverted.
  3. Ankle valgus is relatively common in children with previously operated clubfeet. While these feet may be presumed to be overcorrected, ankle films may reveal ankle valgus and lateral impingement. If the feet are flexible, it may be preferable to deliberately overcorrect into 5º of ankle varus before removing the plates
  4. In orthopedics, a valgus deformity is a condition in which the bone segment distal to a joint is angled outward, that is, angled laterally, away from the body's midline. The opposite deformation, where the twist or angulation is directed medially, toward the center of the body, is called varus. Common causes of valgus knee (genu valgum or knock-knee) in adults include arthritis of the knee.
  5. iii Symptoms point tenderness slight swelling pain with dorsiflexion and from KIN 184 at University of Miam

* Re:varus vs valgus injury #2642770 : iangel - 04/15/12 15:10 : Varus injury the force is applied from the outside to the inside. VAlgus injury there's an outward angulation of ther knee from the inside valgus in an unloaded position. It was 1.3°±0.8° valgus under varus force and 5.8°±1.1° valgus under valgus force. The average dynamic range was >±2°. Conclusions: Potential differences between the postoperative MAs assessed by weight bearing radiographs and the navigation system in unloade

stiffness were assessed with the knee nonweight bearing by applying 0-10 Nm of valgus and varus torques to the distal tibia with a force transducer (Model SM-50, Interface, Scottsdale, AZ). IER laxity and stiffness were measured with the knee nonweight bearing by applying 0 52 Elbow Valgus and Varus Stress Tests Elbow Valgus and Varus Stress Tests Elbow Varus Stress Test. Use: Test for varus lateral collateral ligament (LCL) instability at the elbow Procedure: Elbow flexed, slight supination, support forearm, gapping in/out to assess ligament Findings: Positive finding is pain, decreased mobility, laxity as compared with the unaffected sid sition by fluoroscopy, a manual varus force was applied to the femoral neck along the fracture line to reduce the angulation (Fig. 2). Once the valgus-impacted FNF was disimpacted into the anatomical position and the cortical continuity of the medical cortex was recovered, reduction was checked fluoroscopically with the reduction force deforming musculature (extensor/supinator) and a valgus force is applied to the elbow, utilizing the radial head to push the FIGURE 3. Failed reduction when the space for the lateral con-dyle fragment is not opened up with pronation and varus force. FIGURE 4. Failure of reduction when the thumb is not used as a both the lateral and medial collateral ligament are involved in stabilizing the knee. LCL. resists varus force on the knee. MCL. resists valgus force on the knee. Epidemiology. incidence. MCL is most commonly injured knee ligament. Pathogenesis

Valgus, Varus, Vargus What is It? - Academy of Clinical

A varus thrust (the knee buckles laterally upon heel strike) with lateral instability or a valgus thrust with medial instability. It is important to rule out muscle weakness before homing in on instability. Persistent quad weakness due to poor rehab or inability to fully extend the knee that prevents a patient from locking-out their knee. In this way, the AFO's force produces a plantar flexion moment that counters the ground reaction force's (GRF) tendency to dorsiflex the ankle. The AFO's ability to redirect the ground reaction force, and thereby produce a plantar flexor moment, depends on its rigidity. An AFO that is flexible or articulated (hinged at the ankle) does not serve.

The valgus stress test or medial stress test, is a test for damage to the medial collateral ligament of the knee. It involves placing the leg into extension, with one hand placed as a pivot on the knee. With the other hand placed upon the foot applying an abducting force, an attempt is then made to force the leg at the knee into valgus.If the knee is seen to open up on the medial side, this is. Lateral (13%): Varus force to the proximal tibia and carries the highest risk of peroneal nerve injury. Medial: valgus force to the proximal tibia. Rotatory - indirect rotational force, usually caused by the body rotating in the opposite direction of a planted foot (Taylor 1972 Using these LED positions, data collection of knee varus-valgus motion started when the foot reached the force plate (i.e., initial contact) and continued until the foot left the force plate. These data produced a vertical ground reaction force curve and a curve presenting the varus-valgus position (VVP) in time


Mike Reinold presented some interesting data at this year's SaberSeminar stating that the newest PULSEthrow sensor has an intraclass correlation (ICC) value of 0.99 for valgus/varus torque vs. stress (newton-metres) and the American Sports Medicine Institute's lab in Birmingham, AL In patients with talo-calcaneal valgus/varus conditions there is most often more going on than that. These instabilities tend to be triplanar in nature, and even when they're not, if you consider the amount of force generated by just walking, more proximal trims make sense. I take the time to explain basic biomechanics to the patient With the knee fully flexed, the examiner will internally rotate the tibia and extend the knee while applying a varus force at the knee. Pain or a popping sensation indicates a lateral meniscal tear. To test the medial meniscus, the examiner will place the knee into flexion once again, externally rotate the tibia, and extend the knee while. In general, forces acting on the knee produce an impaction injury at the entry site of the force and a distraction injury, or avulsion, at the opposite, or exit, site of the force. , Figure 2 demonstrates a valgus force that produces impaction of the lateral compartment and distraction of the opposite medial compartment. Both types of injuries. Objective Varus and valgus alignment increase medial and lateral tibiofemoral load. Alignment was associated with tibiofemoral osteoarthritis progression in previous studies; an effect on incident osteoarthritis risk is less certain. This study tested whether alignment influences the risk of incident and progressive radiographic tibiofemoral osteoarthritis

Valgus Stress Test - Physiopedi

A valgus unloader brace at 8° valgus alignment setting resulted in a maximum reduction of total contact force when compared to 4° and 0° valgus alignment angles. This result is in line with literature that the increase in valgus alignment angle will result in reduced total contact force within the medial compartment [ 8 , 9 ] The knee is the joint most affected by osteoarthritis, and varus alignment is its most common deformity. 1 Conservative treatment options include weight loss, pain medicines, intra-articular injections, lateral heel wedges, and bracing. Bracing options include valgus-unloader braces or simple neoprene sleeves

Understanding Valgus - The Science P

Knee in 30 degrees of flexion. Isolates collateral ligament for evaluation. Stabilize lower thigh with one hand. Apply gentle stress at patient's ankle or foot. Valgus stress tests medial collateral ligament. Varus stress tests lateral collateral ligament. Repeat test with gentle rocking motion. Images where the modeled muscle force varies with fiber length (lm), which varies with forearm rotation angle ( à) [8]. The total, isometric, varus torque produced by the flexor pronator muscles ( 6 à è æ) was computed as the sum of the individual torques THE CORRELATION OF FORCE TO DEFORMATION OF THE MEDIAL ULNAR COLLATERAL LIGAMENT (MUCL) WITH CONSIDERATION OF BAND LAXITY . by . David Bernard Jordan. BSME, Louisiana State University, 2016 . Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of . Swanson School of Engineering in partial fulfillment . of the requirements for the degree of . M.S. in Mechanical. The test should also be performed with the knee positioned into 20 to 30 degrees of flexion, applying the same varus force to the knee. How to Interpret Varus Stress Test Positive Finding: A positive test occurs when gapping or pain is noted with this test in full knee extension; this may suggest both an LCL and cruciate injury Knee valgus is a very common occurrence in the weight room. you can even squat with the knees slightly outside of the toes which is called knee varus - the opposite of valgus. The purpose of these is to help teach the body which muscles force the knees out during the squat and build some hip abduction/external rotation strength.

Forefoot Varus or Forefoot Supinatus? Forefoot varus is aBow Legs Images, Stock Photos & Vectors | Shutterstock

Osteotomy: high tibial (valgus) and distal femoral (varus), July 2019. 2 Patient Information - Osteotomy: high tibial (valgus) and distal femoral (varus) Knee anatomy and the problem The knee joint is formed by the lower end of the thigh bone (the femoral condyles) and the upper surface of the shin bone (the tibial plateau) Background: Hallux Abductovalgus (HAV) is a deformity causing excessive angulation of the great toe towards the second toe, and this condition affects over 3.6 million Americans. Conversely hallux varus is excessive medial deviation and this pathology occurs secondary to procedures correcting hallux valgus and as a pediatric/congenital anomaly effect of varus and valgus deformity of the distal tibia on the contact area and force transmission through the tibiotalar joint. We believe this to b