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Hypertensive retinopathy stages Images

Hypertensive Retinopathy 172 views Patient comes in complaining of spots in vision in both eyes. VA was 20/25 - right eye and 20/20- left eye. Fundus exam reveals little hemorrhages with cotton wool spots due to hypertension and anemia The early stages of hypertensive retinopathy, like hypertension itself, may not be noticeable. You may be diagnosed by your doctor before you notice any problems. Uncontrolled blood pressure can cause vision loss. If you lose your sight suddenly, your blood pressure may be at very high levels and require hospitalization to control Hypertensive retinopathy occurs when the blood vessels in the tissue at the back of the eye — the retina — are damaged as a result of blood pressure that is high. The retina focuses an image that a person sees. Damage to the retina usually becomes more severe as the hypertension worsens or when it is prolonged What is hypertensive retinopathy. Hypertensive retinopathy (HR) is a possible complication of high blood pressure (hypertension). Persistent, untreated high blood pressure can cause damage to the retina, the tissues at the back of the eye responsible for receiving the images we need to see

Hypertensive Retinopathy - Full Sized Retina Image

  1. Hypertensive retinopathy is a condition that causes unusual changes of the retina due to high blood pressure. The retina is a tissue found at the back of your eye and it converts light into nerve signal so that the brain can easily interpret it 3. Normally, the retinal arteries are able to control their own shape according to changes in systemic blood pressure
  2. Hypertensive retinopathy is a complex vascular phenotype characterized by a wide spectrum of retinal vessels changes reflecting the severity and duration of BP elevation. Three physiopathological stages of hypertensive retinopathy have been described in systemic hypertension: an early constrictive stage characterized by generalized narrowing of.
  3. Symptoms of hypertensive retinopathy. You probably won't have any symptoms until the condition has progressed extensively. Possible signs and symptoms include: reduced vision. eye swelling.
  4. Diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is a form of micro-angiopathy causing damage to the small blood vessels of the retina as a result of hyperglycaemia.. The most important risk factors for developing diabetic retinopathy are the duration of diabetes and poor diabetic control.Other vascular risk factors like hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and smoking also contribute to the risk of.
  5. Patients with moderate NPDR should be seen every 6 to 8 months. 2,7 There is a 12% to 27% risk that they will develop proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) within 1 year. 2 The use of fundus photography is suggested for these patients, and you may obtain macular OCT images at your discretion if you suspect DME. These patients do not need to.
  6. Hypertensive Retinopathy (HR) caused by hypertension is a retinal disease which may leads to vision loss and blindness. Retinal images were obtained from the VICAVR database, along with images collected form Deepam eye hospital Chennai. The first stage is also called background retinopathy. Assessment of blood vessels network plays an important.
  7. From the images that were collected 25 were normal images and 76 images of hypertensive retinopathy. Discover the world's research is the ultimate stage of Diabetic Retinopathy where.

Intensity variation and colour information is used to classify the vessel as arteries or veins. Vessel width estimation method is used to measure the arteriovenous ratio from which various stages of hypertensive retinopathy can be identified. Retinal images were obtained from the VICAVR database, along with images collected form Deepam eye. Hypertensive Retinopathy. Hypertensive retinopathy is retinal vascular damage caused by hypertension. Signs usually develop late in the disease. Funduscopic examination shows arteriolar constriction, arteriovenous nicking, vascular wall changes, flame-shaped hemorrhages, cotton-wool spots, yellow hard exudates, and optic disk edema The diagnoses of Hypertensive Retinopathy (HR) through retinal images become most important issue today, because HR is rapidly increasing disease that is found in eyes. HR occurs due to the highness of the blood pressure. The most important measurement that is used to diagnose HR through retinal images is arteriovenous ratio (AVR). This paper describe a method to determine AVR by first segment. The differentiation and significance of certain ophthalmoscopic pictures in hypertensive disease. Arch Intern Med 1930;46:901-20. 9. Klein R, Klein BE, Moss SE, et al. Hypertension and retinopathy arteriolar narrowing, and arteriovenous nicking in a population. Arch Ophthalmol 1994 Jan;112(1):92-8. 10. Wong TY, Mitchell P. Hypertensive retinopathy

Risk factors for hypertensive retinopathy include having chronic hypertension, having a systemic blood pressure of 140/110 mmHg for advanced stages, or having a systemic blood pressure of 180/120. Symptoms that few pay attention to include the appearance of floating spots or flies in front of the eyes. Over time, images become blurry, dark streaks appear, and in the dark, vision deteriorates significantly. The main danger of hypertensive retinopathy is that it can cause retinal detachment What is hypertensive retinopathy? Hypertensive retinopathy (HR) is a possible complication of high blood pressure (hypertension). Continuing, untreated hypertension can cause damages to the retina - the tissues at the back of the eye responsible for capturing the images we need to see. The problem can bring about symptoms including double or blurred vision, loss of vision and also headaches

Hypertensive retinopathy is the name given to damage to the retina, as a result of high blood pressure. The retina is the layer of tissue at the back of the eye that works like the film in a camera. It plays such an important part in a person's vision that any damage to it is considered serious Fundus images, Hypertensive retinopathy, arteriovenous ratio. 1. INTRODUCTION Hypertension is a worldwide problem that affects up to 50 million people in the United States and approximately one billion worldwide. Hypertensive retinopathy is the damage to the retina from high blood pressure which can damage th

Hypertension and the eye . Key learning points • Hypertensive retinopathy is a clinical diagnosis made when characteristic fundus findings are seen in a patient with or who has had systemic arterial hypertension. • Mild hypertensive retinal features are seen commonly and are of limite Hypertensive retinopathy mimicking neuroretinitis in a twelve-year-old girl. Surv Ophthalmol 1997; 41 (6): 477-480. CAS Article Google Schola Hypertensive retinopathy is a condition in which there are changes in the retina due to high blood pressure. In a normal eye, the retinal arteries are able to hold their own shape even if there are changes in systemic blood pressure. However when this pressure exceeds 140/110 mmHg, they are unable to control it

Classification of Hypertensive Retinopathy. The extent and severity of the retinopathy is generally represented on a scale of 1 to 4. The scale is called the Keith-Wagener-Barker Classification System. The four grades increase in severity: In Grade 1, there's a mild narrowing of the retinal artery. Grade 2 is similar to grade 1, but there. This measurement of arterio-venous ratio will be further helpful to identify the stages of hypertensive retinopathy. collected 25 were normal images and 76 images of hypertensive retinopathy Grade 3-4 Hypertensive Retinopathy. 56-year old patient presented with acute onset vision loss. Fundus examination revealed Grade 3-4 hypertensive retinopathy changes Chronic Hypertensive Retinopathy: Pathogenesis and clinical findings Ophthalmic Artery Hypertension Stage 1: Mild/vasoconstrictive • Acute and chronic vasospasm -> Diffuse and focal arterial narrowing and vascular tortuosity Stage 2: Moderate/sclerotic • Atherosclerosis and hyalinization causes arteriolar wall thickening resulting in a diffuse light reflex appearing red-brown coloured. Hypertensive Retinopathy Database: AVRDB (Annotated Dataset for Vessel Segmentation and Calculation of Arteriovenous Ratio) is a newly developed HR database which will be publicly available at www.biomisa.org in future for research community. It consists of 100 fundus retinal images which are captured through TOPCON TRC-NW8 and annotated with.

Symptoms of hypertensive retinopathy are sometimes very mild but some experience: 1 . Decreased vision or blurred vision. Bursting blood vessels on the outside of the eye (subconjunctival hemorrhages) Double vision. Katrina Wittkamp / Getty Images. Optometrists and ophthalmologists can diagnose hypertensive retinopathy by completing an eye exam In classification process, the word Grade is used, and Hypertensive Retinopathy problem is encountered at every stage of most classifications. However, in the suggested system, as the first classification consists of the eye images without any disorder, the name of the classification is Level 1 INTRODUCTION. The global burden of hypertension is expected to affect one third of the world's population by 2025. 1 Hypertension has an unfavorable impact on target organs. 2, 3 Hypertensive retinopathy refers to the retinal vascular changes associated with systemic arterial hypertension. 4 The blood vessels of the retina are the only parts of the circulation system that can be viewed. Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by damage in the blood vessel of the retina or the light sensitive tissue found at the rear of the eye. It is regarded as the leading cause of blindness among people 27 to 74 years of age and is commonly associated with diabetes type 1 and type 2 For instance, the three-year survival rate for patients with grade 1 hypertensive retinopathy is 70%, but decreases to just 6% in those with grade 4. 9 Also, in a 13-year study, the rate of CVA in patients who had any stage of hypertensive retinopathy more than doubled in those with moderate to severe retinopathy

Hypertensive Retinopathy: Stages, Symptoms & Treatment

Stage 4: Proliferative diabetic retinopathy . This is an advanced stage of the disease, in which new blood vessels form in the retina. A special camera takes images of the dye as it travels. Images and clinical data provided by the Shiley Eye Center at the University of California, San Diego, and the Veterans Administration Medical Centered San Diego. The data obtained has been divided into two retinal images. They are healthy (normal) and hypertensive retinopathy (abnormal). The data used to be 50 images

What is Hypertensive Retinopathy? (with pictures

Signs of hypertensive retinopathy Ad

Hypertensive retinopathy can cause irreversible retinal damage and vision loss. The specialists at Rockland Eye Physicians & Surgeons in Garnerville, NY, provide a full spectrum of care to protect your vision. This allows us to tailor your treatment at any stage of hypertensive retinopathy from conservative methods to laser surgery Blood pressure, fundus photographs and choroidal OCT-images were available for 3237 (93.3%) subjects, with 1953 (56.3 ± 0.8%) of the study population fulfilled the diagnosis of hypertension and. Grade 4 is also the most severe stage of hypertensive retinopathy. It features a worsening of the symptoms of grade 3, and also includes macular edema and papilledema (swelling of the optic disc). Patients that are diagnosed with grade 4 hypertensive retinopathy are at a higher risk of a stroke

Hypertensive Retinopathy - Symptoms, Stages, Treatment

Introduction. Hypertension is often asymptomatic and recording blood pressure is opportunistic. Although the prevalence varies by ethnic group and country, which ranges from 26.6% to 35.5%, hypertension was very common all over the world 1 - 3.A number of hypertensives may present for the first time with target-organ damage involving various organs 2 - 4 Various staging systems for hypertensive retinopathy have been developed. One that has been widely used in more recent years was presented by Wong et al 13 (Table 1).Optometrists play an important role in the treatment of patients with hypertension and knowing how to effectively manage these patients is crucial (Table 2).The information outlined in Tables 1 and 2 can aid the eyecare provider. As no visual symptoms exist for hypertensive retinopathy, a detailed investigation of fundus images is required. The key factor for the detection is Arterial-Venous ratio (AVR), which usually falls in the range of 0.667 to 0.75 for a healthy retina. Hypertensive retinopathy may cause the ratio to decrease and for the preliminary stage, AVR.

Acute and chronic hypertensive changes may manifest in the eyes, respectively, from acute changes from malignant hypertension and chronic changes from long-term, systemic hypertension. Ocular involvement in the setting of malignant hypertension was first described by Liebreich, in 1859 Images for Hypertensive Retinitis . Hypertensive Retinopathy - Symptoms, Stages, Treatment hipatient.com. Hypertensive retinopathy - Wikipedia wikimedia.org. Hypertensive Retinopathy. Hypertensive retinopathy, fundus image - Stock Image C026 sciencephoto.com Accurate classification leads to the best grading of different stages of hypertensive retinopathy in fundus images. Three dataset of fundus images are tested by this algorithm which are INSPIRE-AVR, VICAVR and a local dataset. Results obtained after testing are compared with other techniques and shows the improvements Diabetic and hypertensive retinopathy 1. Diabetic Retinopathy & Hypertensive Retinopathy By: Ch.Vineela, 2. Diabetic Retinopathy • Diabetic retinopathy is retinopathy (damage to the retina) caused by complications of diabetes mellitus, which can eventually lead to blindness • It is an ocular manifestation of systematic disease which affects up to 80% of all diabetic patient Blood pressure, fundus photographs and choroidal OCT-images were available for 3237 (93.3%) subjects, with 1953 (56.3 ± 0.8%) of the study population fulfilled the diagnosis of hypertension and 1089 subjects having hypertensive retinopathy. For the hypertensive cases, the SFCT in patients with hypertensive retinopathy (286.48 ± 105.23 µm.

This research aims to develop a system for early detection of hypertension retinopathy stage. The proposed method is to determine the combined features artery and vein diameter ratio (AVR) as well as changes position with Optic Disk (OD) in retinal images to review the classification of hypertensive retinopathy using Deep Neural Networks (DNN. Medical research indicated that narrowing of the retinal blood vessels might be an early indicator of cardiovascular diseases; one of them is hypertensive retinopathy. This paper proposed the new staging method of hypertensive retinopathy by measure the ratio of diameter artery and vein (AVR). The dataset used in this research is the public Messidor color fundus image dataset High blood pressure and diabetes are associated with a retinal abnormality known as Hypertensive Retinopathy (HR). The severity-level and duration of hypertension are straightly related to the incidence of HR-eye disease. The HR damages the pathological lesions of eyes such as arteriolar narrowing, retinal hemorrhage, macular edema, cotton wool spots, and blood vessels. In the early stages, it.

The widely adopted technique employs features extracted from healthy retinal images in training retina recognition system. However, literature has shown that certain eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy (DR), hypertensive retinopathy, glaucoma, and cataract could alter the recognition accuracy of the retina recognition system National Heart Foundation of Australia Guideline for the diagnosis and management of hypertension in adults 2016 i Acknowledgements National Heart Foundation of Australia - National Blood Pressure and Vascular Disease Advisory Committe hemorrhages appear in severe diabetic retinopathy images which is the last stage of diabetic retinopathy. Fig 1. Normal image and an image with exudates, hemorrhages and microaneurysms B. Steps Pre processing Image Segmentation Feature Extraction Classification Fig 1c) Flow chart of proposed model a. Pre-processin Patients with moderate to severe hypertensive retinopathy frequently have acute hypertensive nephrosclerosis (formerly called malignant nephrosclerosis), although kidney biopsies are seldom performed. Historically, papilledema was the hallmark of a more advanced condition (ie, malignant hypertension) associated with a higher mortality (akin. hypertensive retinopathy (HR) in the retina of the eye is disturbance caused by high blood pressure disease, where there is a systemic change of arterial in the blood vessels of the retina. Most heart attacks occur in patients caused by high blood pressure symptoms of undiagnosed. Hypertensive retinopathy Symptoms such as arteriolar narrowing, retinal haemorrhage and cotton wool spots

Background/aims: Individuals who reach end-stage kidney disease (CKD5) have a high risk of vascular events that persists even after renal transplantation. This study compared the prevalence and severity of microvascular disease in transplant recipients and patients with CKD5 The signs and symptoms of hypertensive retinopathy usually develop in later stages of the disease. Most patients are asymptomatic although some may present with headaches, blurred vision or loss of vision. In emergency situations, symptoms of stroke may start to appear which requires immediate hospitalisation and prompt management.. The fundoscopic examination of patients in earlier stages of. Hypertensive encephalopathy is a syndrome in which altered mental status, headache, vision changes, and/or seizures accompany elevated blood pressure. Failure of cerebral autoregulation from a sudden elevation of blood pressure results in endothelial injury and vasogenic edema. Radiographically, hypertensive encephalopathy most commonly. Vijaya Kumari et al used MDD classifiers for classifying retinal images where propagation through radii method is used for feature extraction . Zohra et al performed a computer based approach for the detection of diabetic retinopathy stage using SVM where the features are extracted from the raw images using image processing techniques

Automatic segmentation of retinal images is an important task in computer-assisted medical image analysis for the diagnosis of diseases such as hypertension, diabetic and hypertensive retinopathy, and arteriosclerosis. Among the diseases, diabetic retinopathy, which is the leading cause of vision detachment, can be diagnosed early through the detection of retinal vessels Next, a dye is injected into a vein (usually in the arm) and pictures are taken to see how the dye moves through the eye. Both hypertensive retinopathy tests are pain free. Hypertensive Retinopathy Treatment. Hypertensive retinopathy is graded on a scale of 1-4 based on severity. Patients diagnosed in grade 1 may not experience any symptoms Article: Support System for the Automated Detection of Hypertensive Retinopathy using Fundus Images. IJCA Special Issue on International Conference on Electronic Design and Signal Processing ICEDSP(1):7-11, February 2013

Hypertensive retinopathy is associated with increased risks of stroke, cognitive impairment, and cardiovascular death (Schwartz, Schneider & Mieler, 2013). Most patients in the early stages of hypertensive retinopathy do not report experiencing any symptoms Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is an eye ailment which influences eighty to eighty-five percent of the patients who have diabetes for more than ten years. The retinal fundus images are commonly used for detection and analysis of diabetic retinopathy disease in clinics. The raw retinal fundus images are very hard to process by machine learning. Early hypertensive retinopathy (grade 1 and 2) are commonly seen in the. presence of other retinal conditions such as branch retinal vein occlusion, branch retinal artery occlusion or. macroaneurysm. In the examination, if the main focus is on hypertensive retinopathy the patient usually has grade 3 or 4 hypertensive. retinopathy Hypertensive retinopathy is retinal vascular damage caused by hypertension. Signs usually develop late in the disease. Funduscopic examination shows arteriolar constriction, arteriovenous nicking, vascular wall changes, flame-shaped hemorrhages, cotton-wool spots, yellow hard exudates, and optic disk edema Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is defined by the presence of neovascularization of the disc (NVD) or elsewhere (NVE) or vitreous hemorrhage. Although you use further criteria to identify a subcategory called high-risk PDR, you should initially deem any eye with PDR at high risk of progressing to a vision-threatening event like a.

Macular holes occur most commonly in predominantly healthy women in their seventh decade of life. 1 We followed up a young patient for 6 years who developed a full-thickness macular hole following an episode of hypertensive retinopathy. We propose a multifactorial cause of this macular hole Subsequent funduscopy demonstrated grade IV hypertensive retinopathy which was confirmed on retinal photography, figure 1. Stage IV hypertensive retinopathy is defined (Keith Wagener Barker classification) by the presence of papilloedema in addition to the features of stage III hypertensive retinopathy namely, intra-retinal 'flame' and. hypertensive retinopathy diagnosis model generally has preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction, classification, and performance analysis stages[1]. An important stage in the diagnosis process is the segmentation, feature extraction, and classification stages. These three stages have many methods used, such as the segmentation stage. HIGH blood pressure can lead to hypertensive retinopathy. If it has been a little while since you had a doctor take your blood pressure reading, here are four signs that your health is deteriorating The hemorrheological factors showed a parallel deterioration with the severity of hypertension (measured BP values) and of fundus picture, namely their values were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in patients with stage III fundus picture (WBV at 90 1/s: 6.02 mPas), than stage I hypertension (WBV at 90 1/s: 4.51 mPas)

detection of hypertensive retinopathy stage and analysed the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed methods. 1. Introduction High blood pressure can cause a lot of disturbance on the retina of the eye, one of which is hypertensive retinopathy (HR) where systemic changes produced by arterial hypertension is reflecte Grade 3 (US) urgent refer HES. R3. Proliferative retinopathy. Floaters, sudden visual loss. New vessel formation either at the disc (NVD) or elsewhere (NVE). Photos: flat new vessels, raised, florid Grade 4a (US) urgent refer HES. R3 Long term duration of diabetes and hypertension are the main factors to the onset of some eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy (DR) and hypertensive retinopathy (HR) . In recent years, deep learning methods are increasingly used to improve clinical practice by using medical images including retinal fundus images [9, 12, 15] Identify the stages of hypertensive retinopathy. Review the presentation of hypertensive retinopathy. Outline the treatment and management options available for hypertensive retinopathy. Describe interprofessional team strategies for improving care coordination and outcomes in patients with hypertensive retinopathy. Pharmacy Activity Type What is stage 1 hypertension ranges? 140-159/90-99. What is stage 2 hypertension ranges? When looking for crossing changes in hypertensive retinopathy, about how far away from the ON should you be looking? Images of Multifactoral Disorders of the Orbit and Adnexa 5 Terms

Sickle cell retinopathy is an ocular manifestation of the spectrum of sickle cell disease, an inherited group of hemoglobinopathies with numerous systemic and ocular presentations. Hemoglobin is an iron containing protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen. It consists of two alpha polypeptide chains, each of which pairs with a beta. Background: The usefulness of the hypertensive retinopathy classification by Keith-Wagener-Barker (KWB) in clinical practice remains controversial. The simplified Mitchell-Wong grading, combining the two initial KWB' grades in one stage, is proposed as an alternative method; both systems are poorly validated regarding their association with target organ damage Hypertensive retinopathy, formerly termed as albuminuric retinitis, is a condition characterized by appearance of a series of changes in the retinal vasculature occurring as a result of acutely severe or prolonged, consistent systemic hypertension. Hypertensive Retinopathy (Hypertensive Retinal Changes): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis The first images show two pairs of eyes, along with the black borders. Notice in the cropping and rotations how the majority of noise is removed. After rotations and mirroring, the class imbalance is rectified, with a few thousand more images having retinopathy. In total, there are 106,386 images being processed by the neural network

The usefulness of the hypertensive retinopathy classification by Keith-Wagener-Barker (KWB) in clinical practice remains controversial. The simplified Mitchell-Wong grading, combining the two initial KWB' grades in one stage, is proposed as an alternative method; both systems are poorly validated regarding their association with target organ. Along with causing heart and kidney problems, untreated high blood pressure can also affect your eyesight and lead to eye disease. Hypertension can cause damage to the blood vessels in the retina, the area at the back of the eye where images focus. This eye disease is known as hypertensive retinopathy Hypertensive Retinopathy (HR) is an eye disease caused by high blood pressure. Formation of Cotton Wool Spots (CWS) is one of the important clinical signs that are seen at advanced stages in HR. An automated system is presented in this paper for the detection of Cotton Wool Spots in digital retinal images risk of developing retinopathy and ne-phropathy and possibly reduced the risk for neuropathy (8). The overall mi-crovascular complication rate was de-creased by 25% in patients receiving intensive therapy versus conventional Table 1—Diabetic retinopathy stages* Diabetic retinopathy stage Descriptio During the first three stages of diabetic retinopathy, no treatment is needed, unless you have macular edema. To prevent progression of diabetic retinopathy, people with diabetes should control their levels of blood sugar, blood pressure, and blood cholesterol. Proliferative retinopathy is treated with laser surgery. This procedur

Diabetic retinopathy is silent with no outward symptoms in its early stages. It's not until the later stages that vision loss is noticeable. Anyone who has had diabetes for more than 10 years is a prime target for diabetic retinopathy. Detected early, it can be monitored and treated most of the time Worldwide, diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness among working-aged adults. The global burden of diabetic retinopathy includes: 387 million people with diabetes mellitus (DM) in the world, estimated to increase to 592 million people in 2035. 93 million people with diabetic retinopathy. Affects 1 out of 3 persons with diabetes.

Updated classification of hypertensive retinopathy: which

W Kempler. The Treatment of Retinopathy in Kidney Disease and Hypertensive and Arteriosclerotic Vascular Disease with the Rice Diet. 1951 Revista doos Tribunais. W Kempler. Compensation of renal metabolic dysfunction. N. Car Med Jour. 1945 Feb 6(2)61 - 87. Q Mohamed, M C Gillies, T Y Wong. Management of diabetic retinopathy: a systematic review DALLAS, March 25 - For the first time, researchers have shown that hypertensive retinopathy, a form of blood vessel damage in the eye, is twice as common in African Americans as in Caucasians.

Hypertension has a range of effects on the eye. Hypertensive retinopathy refers to retinal microvascular signs that develop in response to raised blood pressure. Signs of hypertensive retinopathy are frequently seen in adults 40 years and older, and are predictive of incident stroke, congestive heart failure, and cardiovascular mortality—independently of traditional risk factors The Four Stages of Diabetic Retinopathy. Stage. Symptoms. Background retinopathy (mild nonproliferative retinopathy) Small bulges (microaneurysms) in the tiny blood vessels of the back of the eye (retina) appear and may cause the vessels to leak tiny amounts of blood. Vision is not affected at this stage

Hypertensive Retinopathy: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

The prevalence rate of hypertensive retinopathy in their study was 48%. Karki et al from Nepal have reported 13.7% of fundus changes in their study of 153 subjects with PIH [7]. In our study, 38/150 cases Stage I changes were seen in 30 cases (79%), Stage II changes were seen in 1 case (2.6%) and Stage III changes were seen in 7cases (18.4%) Diabetic retinopathy is best diagnosed with a comprehensive dilated eye exam. For this exam, drops placed in your eyes widen (dilate) your pupils to allow your doctor a better view inside your eyes. The drops can cause your close vision to blur until they wear off, several hours later. During the exam, your eye doctor will look for.

Hypertensive Retinopathy - Symptoms, Stages, TreatmentAutomated Analysis of Retinal Images for Detection of